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考研必背的基础语法知识点,名师手记

2019-10-30 11:28

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第十七讲 轻巧句、并列句和复合句

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生龙活虎。考试大纲供给

  语法知识点1

试验大纲必要考生能科学决断句子的品种、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选拔适当的连接词语、判别主语和从句的科学语序、妥贴选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。教导的可比级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被相比对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像您相似学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难题句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等高校统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考试首要包罗:句子的结构、连词的精选、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和独特的句式应用。

  2.only指导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  唯有努力、正直,一人在生活中本领不负职务。 

1.简约句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  独有那位女孩子知道什么样解那道题。

① 句子体系三种分类法

  3.wish引导的虚构语气:wish 前边的从句,今世表与实际相反的意况,或代表今后不太大概实现的意思时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

坚守句子的用途,印度语印尼语的语句可分:陈说句(料定、否定)、疑问句(日常、特殊、选拔、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等二种。

  ⑴代表对现行反革命状态的虚构:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的离世式用were.   

鲁人持竿句子的布局可分:轻易句并列句和复合句二种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    作者期望理解那些标题标答案。(缺憾不精晓。) 

简言之句唯有二个主语或并列主语和贰个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分集团(;)把三个或七个以上的简短句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有贰个或一个之上从句的句子。复合句包涵:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等二种。

  ⑵表示对过去状态的诬捏:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

② 并列句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  作者后悔不应该浪费这么多时光。( 实际3月经浪费掉了。) 

并列句指把多少个同样首要的句子连接在一块儿,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

  ⑶代表对南梁的主观意愿:谓语动词方式为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在这里种景况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不可能平等,因为主句的主语所愿意的从句动作能还是不能够落到实处,决计于从句主语的情态或希望(非动作名词除了这一个之外) 。 

代表选择事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能终止。 

代表转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够表示乞求,经常意味着说话人的超慢或可惜。

代表因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  笔者盼望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语同样,  大家常用it 来作情势宾语, 把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种状态进一步出以后带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他申明她不会屈性格很顽强在艰难险阻或巨大压力面前不屈。 

状语从句日常修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词指引,附属连词在从句中不担当句子成分。依据状语从句所发布的分裂含义和功能,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、指标、结果、妥胁、相比、方式等状语从句。

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的词语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。大家越恐慌困难,困难就能够变得越强大。

时光状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.意气风发……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第贰遍,last time最终二回,every/each time每趟,the next time下一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 生龙活虎……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:平时难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

低头状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘故状语从句:since辅导的

规范化状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(要是;只要),in case (万生机勃勃); on condition that(假如), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

相比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

艺术状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)辅导。

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中平淡无奇选用陈说语序。可是,在底下的两种情景下,状语从句多接纳倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接妥协状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词平日置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比方:

  6.状语从句轻巧(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语大器晚成致,状从轻易选择分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的五个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so 形容词/副词或such 名词置于句首时,主句选择局地倒装语序。比如:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“前面三个情况适用于后世”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who指引的约束性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第八个分句接收部分倒装语序,即把第贰个分句用陈诉语序。比如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教大家葡萄牙语的拾分女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同指点妥洽状语从句,句子接受陈诉语序。比如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the 相比级the 相比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍旧选取叙述语序。举例:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since 的分裂之处在于,now that 引出的必须是叁个新面世的真实情状或状态,假设依然依旧,和千古对待并从未变化,则毫不 now that 教导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然大家把富有材料都准备好了,我们应有及时起初那项新的职业。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态平常依照以下的法则:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 教导的从句要是放在句末,且前边有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来代表。但假使不是印证直接原因,而是多样景况再说估量,就只可以用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今日没来,因为她身患了。

①意味着“同一时间”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时光状语从句,主句和从句时态基本后生可畏致。比如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 缘故状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新加坡 passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“未来”意义的标准、时间和妥洽状语从句中多用常常今后时,而主句用日常将来时,被称为“主将从现”。举个例子:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since引导的时光状语从句多用日常过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现时做到时。举例:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 合资化的独特之处在于能拉动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第贰个分句中过去产生时,第三个分句用日常过去时。举例:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 指引的状语从句中,假若表暗意气风发种与实际相反夸张,从句多用日常过去时或过去产生时。比方:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  作品来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简练

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句相似的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动组织的状语从句,可粗略与主句近似的主语和助动词,保留连词 现在分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用来重申组织中

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以强调组织时,风流倜傥律用It is/was …that…,无法用when替代that。句子用陈诉语序。注意:当重申Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。比如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

依据在句中的成效,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句多样。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担负成分,不经常可被轻易;表示“是不是”用whether,独有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不辜负勒令分。如若从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子元素,用一而再三回九转代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;假诺从句缺乏状语,用一而再延续副词when, where, how, why。

由于延续代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难点语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而连续几日词whether 和if(是或不是),在从句中不担负句子成分,只起接连效能。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下二种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可回顾。

(1)It is 形容词 that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊异的)等。

(2) It is 名词 that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(百折不回), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(提出),advise(建议),recommend(提出,推荐), request(央求,须求), demand(要求),require(须要,需求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可粗略。

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(提出), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可总结。

④在某些意味着惊呆、意志力等心绪色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。比如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非限定性定语从句三种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和范围功效,而非限定性定语从句对先行词起互补和表明表达效果与利益。平常节制性定语从句与先行词之间从未逗号,而非限定性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔绝。

(2)定语从句的关联代词和事关副词

定语从句日常由关系代词和事关副词指点。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必得放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连连先行词和从句的功力,同不平时间在从句中又出任句子成分。

(3)关系代词和涉嫌副词的用法:

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何句未时用which,可作主语或宾语;③预先词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)约束性定语从句与非约束性定语从句的界别

①约束性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧密,去掉从句,主句意义残缺,以致不合逻辑。举个例子:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

② 非约束性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思照旧安然无事。方式上用逗号隔离,不可能that用引导。举例:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的情致仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

①用that而不用 which的情形:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高端修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举例:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的气象:辅导非节制性定语从句;指代整个主句的情致;用于介词 的背后 关系代词。举例:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。举个例子:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代表主句的剧情,指引的非节制性定语从句既可放在主句早前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。举例: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 指引非限定性定语从句时与which的区分

当主句和从句语义生龙活虎致时,用as指点;反之,用which来辅导迷津非节制性定语从句;当非约束订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指引。比如:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④事关代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数依旧用复数应由先行词决定。比方:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 辅导定语从句的涉嫌副词不时可以用“介词 which”来顶替。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且不可能差不离;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可总结。举例:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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